Error: Cannot convert null to type parameter ‘T’

Problem You’re trying to return null from a generic method and you’re getting the following compiler error: Cannot convert null to type parameter ‘T’ because it could be a non-nullable value type. Consider using ‘default(T)’ instead You can’t return null because the compiler doesn’t know if T is nullable. Solution There are a few options … Read more

C# – Can’t pass decimal parameter in DataTestMethod

I have a parameterized unit test with decimal parameters. When I run the test, I get the following exception: System.ArgumentException: Object of type ‘System.Double’ cannot be converted to type ‘System.Decimal’. Solution Change the parameters to doubles and convert them to decimals inside the test method. Why is it throwing an exception? You have to pass … Read more

C# – Parameterized tests with MSTest v2

There are two steps for parameterizing a unit test when using the MSTest v2 framework (built-in default): Here’s an example: Parameterized unit tests are useful because you only need one test method for multiple test cases instead of one test method per test case. It’s a simple way to declutter your unit tests and make … Read more

C# – How to make concurrent requests with HttpClient

The HttpClient class was designed to be used concurrently. It’s thread-safe and can handle multiple requests. You can fire off multiple requests from the same thread and await all of the responses, or fire off requests from multiple threads. No matter what the scenario, HttpClient was built to handle concurrent requests. To use HttpClient effectively … Read more

C# – How to use FileSystemWatcher

You can use the FileSystemWatcher class to detect file system changes, such as when a file is created, deleted, modified, or renamed. When a change happens, it raises an event that you can handle. This is an event-based alternative to polling for file changes. In this article, I’ll show how to use FileSystemWatcher to detect … Read more

C# – How to test that your code can handle another culture’s date format

Let’s say you have code that converts a string to a DateTime with DateTime.Parse(): By default, DateTime.Parse() uses CultureInfo.CurrentCulture to figure out the date format. The current culture ultimately comes from your OS settings. So when you run this code on a computer that is using the en-US locale, the current culture will automatically default … Read more

.NET – Signing code with a certificate

You’re given .PFX code signing certificate and told to sign your code. What does this mean, and how do you do it? What is code signing? Signing code means creating a digital signature on an executable file by using a code signing certificate. When your code is executed, your organization’s security software will check that … Read more

C# – Use Convert.ChangeType to convert string to any type

You can use Convert.ChangeType() to convert from a string to any type, like this: Normally you’d call the specific type converter method, such as when you’re converting a string to an int. However, sometimes it makes sense to use the generalized type converter method – Convert.ChangeType() – instead of hardcoding the calls to specific type … Read more

C# – Get all classes that implement interface

You can use reflection to get all classes in the current assembly that implement a specific interface. Here’s how: To create instances of these types, loop through them and use Activator.CreateInstance(), like so: Example – Auto-wire a command routing table Let’s say we want to build a command routing table. We have commands and want … Read more

C# – How to implement the plugin pattern

In this article, I’ll explain how to implement the plugin pattern. This approach uses a generic plugin loader that solves many real world problems when loading plugins in .NET. Besides being generic, this plugin loader also solves the following real world problems when working with plugins: If you find that this generic plugin loader doesn’t … Read more

Error: Sequence contains no elements

Problem When you call .First() on an empty IEnumerable, you get the following exception: System.InvalidOperationException: Sequence contains no elements Solution Option 1 – Use .FirstOrDefault() instead of .First() When the IEnumerable is empty, .FirstOrDefault() returns the default value for the type. For reference types this returns null. For value types this returns 0 or that … Read more

C# – How to switch on type

Sometimes you may find it necessary to have conditional logic based on an object’s type. The simplest way to do this is to switch on the type, like this: This feature is called type pattern matching. Before this feature was added (in C# 7), you’d have to use a bunch of if-else’s and check the … Read more

C# – How to use IN with Dapper

Let’s say you have a SQL Query that uses IN and you want to execute it using Dapper. Your query looks something like this: Here’s how you’d execute that with Dapper: Then you’d call it like this: There are two key things to notice about this: Exclude the parentheses In a normal SQL Query you … Read more

C# – Deserialize JSON to dynamic object

If you want to deserialize JSON without having to create a bunch of classes, you can either deserialize to a dictionary or deserialize to a dynamic object with Newtonsoft.Json. Here’s an example. Let’s say you want to deserialize the following JSON: To deserialize this to a dynamic object with Newtonsoft, use JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<dynamic>: This outputs the … Read more

C# – Case insensitive dictionary

Dictionaries with string keys are case sensitive by default. If you want a case-insensitive dictionary, use the Dictionary constructor that takes a string comparison option and pass in StringComparer.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase, like this: Note: There are other case-insensitive options you can pick from, such as OrdinalIgnoreCase. Example I have a table that maps users to devices. The … Read more

KeyNotFoundException: The given key was not present in the dictionary

Problem The following exception is thrown when you try to get a value from a dictionary using a key that doesn’t exist in the dictionary: KeyNotFoundException: ‘The given key was not present in the dictionary.’ Consider the following the example of initializing a dictionary with a few key/value pairs, and then trying to access non-existent … Read more