C# – Deserialize a JSON array to a list

When you’re working with a JSON array, you can deserialize it to a list like this: This deserializes all of the objects in the JSON array into a List<Movie>. You can use this list object like usual. Note: All examples will use System.Collections.Generic and System.Text.Json. I’ll exclude the using statements for brevity. Example – JSON … Read more

C# – How to send a file with HttpClient

In order to send a file in a request with HttpClient, add the file into a MultipartFormDataContent object, and send this object as the request content. Here’s an example: This sends the following multipart/form-data POST request: In this article, I’ll explain a few details about MultipartFormDataContent, and show a few other file-sending scenarios. MultipartFormDataContent Add() … Read more

C# – Sending query strings with HttpClient

Query strings start with ‘?’ and have one or more key-value pairs separated by ‘&’. All characters except a-z, A-Z, 0-9 have to be encoded, including Unicode characters. When you use HttpClient, it automatically encodes the URI for you (internally, it delegates this task to the Uri class). This means when you include a query … Read more

C# – Convert a list to a dictionary

The simplest way to convert a list to a dictionary is to use the Linq ToDictionary() method: This loops through the list and uses the key/element selector lambdas you passed in to build the dictionary. In this article, I’ll go into details about how to use ToDictionary() and show how to deal with duplicate keys. … Read more

C# – Copy a dictionary

The simplest way to make a copy of a dictionary is to use the copy constructor. You pass the dictionary you want to copy to the new dictionary’s constructor, like this: Note: If you’re using a non-default comparer, you’ll want to pass it to the copy constructor (i.e. new Dictionary(d, d.Comparer)). The copy constructor handles … Read more

C# – Deserialize JSON to a dictionary

I’ll show examples of how to deserialize JSON to dictionaries in different scenarios. Deserializing to Dictionary<string, string> When your JSON object has properties with simple string values (as opposed to nested objects), you can deserialize to Dictionary<string, string>. Here’s an example. Consider the following simple JSON object: Note: In all examples, I’ll show the pretty-printed … Read more

C# – Serialize a dictionary to JSON

When you want to convert a dictionary to a JSON string, you can use the built-in JsonSerializer (from System.Text.Json) to serialize the dictionary. Here’s an example: Note: This is passing in WriteIndented=true to pretty print the JSON string for readability. This serializes the dictionary to a JSON string with the following format: I’ll show more … Read more

C# – Get dictionary key by value

Dictionaries have keys mapped to values, which enables you to efficiently lookup values by key. But you can also do a reverse lookup: get the key associated with a value. The simplest option is to use FirstOrDefault(), but that’s only a good idea if you know the value exists for sure. Instead, the best option … Read more

C# – Check if a value exists in dictionary

Normally you’d check if a dictionary contains a key or get a value by key. But you can also check if the dictionary contains a specific value by using Dictionary.ContainsValue(). Here’s an example: Dictionary.ContainsValue() returns true if the value was found and otherwise returns false. In this example, I initialized the dictionary with a single … Read more

C# – Check if key exists in dictionary

When you want to check if a key exists, use Dictionary.ContainsKey(). This returns true if the key exists and otherwise returns false. Here’s an example: This initializes the dictionary with a few items and then checks if one of the key exists. This outputs: Usually you’ll want to do something based on if the key … Read more

C# – Update value in a dictionary

After you add a key/value pair to a dictionary, you can update the value for the key by using the indexer syntax (i.e. dictionary[key]=value), like this: This outputs the updated value for the ‘Bob’ key: The indexer syntax inserts if the key doesn’t exist -or- updates the value if the key already exists. This means … Read more

System.ArgumentException: An item with the same key has already been added

Problem Dictionaries require keys to be unique. When you try to add a key/value to a dictionary and the key already exists, you get the following exception: System.ArgumentException: An item with the same key has already been added. This can happen when you use Dictionary.Add() or when you initialize a dictionary using the “curly brace” … Read more

C# – Remove items from dictionary

Dictionaries contain key/value pairs. When you want to remove one or more items from a dictionary, you can use one of the following methods: I’ll show examples below. Remove item by key Use Dictionary.Remove() to remove an item based on its key. If the key exists, it removes the key/value pair from the dictionary and … Read more

C# – Get value from dictionary

Dictionaries store key/value pairs. When you want to get the value for a key, you can use the indexer syntax and specify the key, like this: Note: In order to show how to get a value, I had to initialize the dictionary with key/value pairs. This returns the value associated with the “Bob” key and … Read more

C# – Initialize a dictionary

You can declare a dictionary and initialize it with values by using the collection initializer syntax. Within the initializer block, you have two options for adding key/value pairs to the dictionary: I’ll show examples of both options below. Note: If you have a list of items already, you can convert the list to a dictionary … Read more

C# – Add to a dictionary

The simplest way to add a key/value pair to a dictionary is by using Dictionary.Add(), like this: If the key already exists, Dictionary.Add() throws an ArgumentException because the key must be unique. There are a few other ways to add to a dictionary in different scenarios, which I’ll explain below. Add or update key/value in … Read more

C# – Get temp folder path and create a temp file

You can use Path.GetTempPath() to get the user’s temp folder path. Here’s an example: I’m running this in Windows, so it outputs my temp folder path: Path.GetTempPath() gets the temp folder path by checking environment variables (TMP, TEMP, USERPROFILE). It falls back to returning the system temp folder. Create a temp file Once you have … Read more

C# – Validate an IP address

Use IPAddress.Parse() to parse an IP address from a string. This handles both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and throws an exception if the string can’t be parsed into a valid IP address. Here’s an example: This outputs the following: Use IPAddress.TryParse() if you don’t want exceptions to be thrown. It returns false if the string … Read more

C# – Ignore case with string.Contains()

By default, string.Contains() does a case sensitive search for a substring (or character) in a string. You can make it do a case insensitive search instead by passing in StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase, like this: Note: StringComparison has three ‘ignore case’ options to choose from. Because this is doing a case insensitive search, it matched “earth” to “Earth” … Read more

C# – Get all files in a folder

There are two simple ways to get all files in a folder: I’ll show examples below, along with a few other scenarios, such as getting files from subfolders. Note: ‘directory’ and ‘folder’ mean the same thing. I use these terms interchangeably. Get all files with Directory.GetFiles() Directory.GetFiles() returns all file paths from the top-level folder … Read more

C# – Convert JSON to an object

Converting a JSON string to an object is referred to as deserialization. You can do this with a JSON serializer. There are two primary options: I’ll show examples by deserializing the following Movie JSON to a Movie object: Movie JSON: Movie class (properties match JSON): Using JsonSerializer.Deserialize() (in System.Text.Json) To deserialize with the built-in JsonSerializer.Deserialize(), … Read more

C# – Find a character in a string

There are three methods you can use to find a character in a string: I’ll show examples below. Using string.IndexOf() to find a character string.IndexOf() returns the index of the first occurrence of a character in a string. It searches the string from left to right, starting at the beginning. If it doesn’t find the … Read more

C# – Serialize to JSON in alphabetical order

There are two ways to serialize an object’s properties to JSON in alphabetical order using System.Text.Json: I’ll show how to do these two options below. Option 1 – Manually alphabetize with JsonPropertyOrder You can specify the exact serialization ordering by using the JsonPropertyOrder attribute. Therefore, to serialize in alphabetical order, first arrange the properties in … Read more

C# – Remove spaces from a string

The simplest way to remove spaces from a string is by using string.Replace(). Here’s an example: This outputs the following. Notice the spaces are removed. string.Replace() is good for removing all occurrences of a specific character (” ” in this case). When you want to remove all whitespace characters (spaces, tabs, newlines, etc..), there are … Read more

C# – Remove first or last character from a string

Use string.Remove() to remove character(s) from a string based on their index, such as the first or last character. This method has two parameters: string.Remove() returns a new string with the characters removed. I’ll show examples below. Remove the first character from a string To remove the first character, use string.Remove(startIndex: 0, count: 1), like … Read more