ASP.NET Core – Get posted form data in an API Controller

To get posted form data in an API Controller (using the [ApiController] attribute) in ASP.NET Core, use parameters with the [FromForm] attribute. A request to this endpoint would look like this: The form data is a string of key-value pairs (ex: location=United+States). The framework tries to map the form data to parameters by matching the … Read more

C# – Global exception event handlers

There are two global exception event available in all .NET applications: FirstChanceException: When any exception is thrown, this event is fired before anything else. UnhandledException: When there’s an unhandled exception, this event is fired right before the process is terminated. You wire up these event handlers in Main() (before anything else has executed), like this: … Read more

ASP.NET Core – Log messages to the database in the background

I was reading about logging in ASP.NET when I came across this statement about logging to the database: When logging to SQL Server, don’t do so directly. Instead, add log messages to an in-memory queue and have a background worker dequeue and insert data to SQL Server. Paraphrased from Microsoft – No asynchronous logger methods … Read more

How to stop the ASP.NET service when a background service crashes

When a background service throws an exception in ExecuteAsync() and stops running, nothing happens. No errors are logged, and the ASP.NET service continues to run. What if you want to stop the ASP.NET service when the background service crashes? To do that, you’ll need to handle exceptions in the background service and call IHostApplicationLifetime.StopApplication(), like … Read more

C# – How to supply IOptions

The options pattern is an indirect way to dependency inject settings into a registered service. If you’re using code that implements the options pattern, then you’re required to supply an IOptions<T> object. For example, let’s say you’re using the MovieService class and it has the following constructor: This requires you to supply the IOptions<MovieSettings> parameter. … Read more

ASP0000 Calling BuildServiceProvider from application code results in an additional copy of singleton services being created

When you try to call services.BuildServiceProvider(), you’ll get the following warning: Warning ASP0000 Calling ‘BuildServiceProvider’ from application code results in an additional copy of singleton services being created. Consider alternatives such as dependency injecting services as parameters to ‘Configure’. There are two scenarios where you may be calling BuildServiceProvider() because you want to resolve services … Read more

ASP.NET Core – Dependency inject a background service into the controllers

Let’s say you have a background service called DatabaseLoggerService. It runs as a hosted background service and logs messages to the database. It has the following definition: You want your controllers to use this for logging. They don’t need to know about the concrete DatabaseLoggerService class, and they don’t need to know they are actually … Read more

How to use NLog in ASP.NET

When you want to use NLog in ASP.NET, the first step is to install and configure NLog. Then you can either use NLog directly or fully integrate NLog and ASP.NET. Use NLog directly if you prefer to have static ILogger properties, instead of using dependency injection. The downside of this approach is that you’ll have … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to unit test your middleware class

There are three requirements for unit testing a middleware class: Mock out RequestDelegate by defining a lambda that returns a Task (Task.FromException, Task.FromResult, or Task.FromCanceled). Mock out HttpContext by using DefaultHttpContext. The middleware function needs to be awaited, so your unit test needs to be defined with async Task. Here’s an example: This is a … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to add your own middleware function

Middleware functions have access to requests before they are sent to the controllers. Likewise, they have access to responses from the controllers before they are returned to the client. This is useful for doing things like logging the request and response, generating stats about requests, handling exceptions, and many more scenarios. In this article, first … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to change the JSON serialization settings

System.Text.Json is the default JSON serializer in ASP.NET Core. It uses the following default serialization settings: To change the settings at the service level for all controllers, call AddJsonOptions() in Startup.ConfigureServices() like this: Note: This example is passing in JsonStringEnumConverter, which makes JsonSerializer use the enum name instead of enum value. When you change the … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to make the controllers use Newtonsoft

By default, ASP.NET Core uses System.Text.Json for JSON serialization. If you want to use Newtonsoft instead, you can add the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.NewtonsoftJson nuget package, then call AddNewtonsoftJson() in Startup.ConfigureServices() like this: In this article, I’ll show how to configure the Newtonsoft serializer options. Install the right nuget package Microsoft packaged up Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.NewtonsoftJson based on the framework … Read more

System.InvalidOperationException: Unable to resolve service for type while attempting to activate

When the built-in dependency injection functionality is trying to create a type, it tries to resolve all of the constructor parameters. If it can’t resolve one of the parameters, it’ll throw a variation of one of these exceptions: InvalidOperationException: Unable to resolve service for type <Type Name> while attempt to activate <Type Name>. ArgumentException: Cannot … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to turn off startup logging

When you launch an ASP.NET Core web app, you may see the following startup logging messages: These messages come from having a console logger. If you’re using Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(), it adds a console logger provider by default. There are two simple ways to get rid of these logging messages: turn off logging in appsettings.json or remove … Read more

ASP.NET Core – How to unit test an ApiController

The key to unit testing an ApiController class is to mock out all of its dependencies, including the controller’s HttpContext property, like this: If the controller method you’re testing uses anything from the HttpContext, then you’ll want to swap in your own value. Otherwise HttpContext will be null and you’ll get a NullReferenceException. Fortunately Microsoft … Read more

Adding your own feature flags in ASP.NET

In ASP.NET, you can add your own feature flags by using the feature management functionality. In this article, I’ll show how to configure and use feature management in ASP.NET and how to use this to feature gate an endpoint using your own feature flag. Configure feature management You need to do a few configuration steps … Read more

ASP.NET – How to add User Secrets

To add User Secrets in an ASP.NET project in Visual Studio do the following steps: Right-click the project and click Manage User Secrets. This will create and open a file called secrets.json. Override appsettings.json settings by putting them in secrets.json For example, let’s say your appsettings.json looks like this: You want to override ApiKey. In … Read more

C# – How to read custom configurations from appsettings.json

The appsettings.json file is a convenient way to store and retrieve your application’s configuration. You can add it to any project and then use the Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration library to work with it. Since appsettings.json is just a JSON file, you can add anything to it (as long as it’s valid JSON). Compared with working with the … Read more

ASP.NET – How to use a BackgroundService for long-running and periodic tasks

In ASP.NET, when you need a long-running background task, or need to run a task periodically, you can implement IHostedService or BackgroundService and register your class as a hosted service in Startup. As you may have already encountered, if you try to run a long-running background task, the web server will randomly kill your task … Read more

ASP.NET – InvalidOperationException: Synchronous operations are disallowed

Problem You’re trying to do synchronous IO operations in ASP.NET and you get the following exception: System.InvalidOperationException: ‘Synchronous operations are disallowed. Call WriteAsync or set AllowSynchronousIO to true The reason you’re getting this is because server option AllowSynchronousIO is false. Starting in ASP.NET Core 3.0, this is false by default. Solution Microsoft turned this setting … Read more

ASP.NET – Use Swagger to generate API documentation

The simplest way to add API documentation is to use Swagger. You can configure it to generate an API documentation page and even send requests to your endpoints. Here’s what it looks like: In this article I’ll show how to install and configure Swagger with the following features (shown in the image above): Generates an … Read more

ASP.NET – Async SSE endpoint

Server-Sent Events (SSE) allow a client to subscribe to messages on a server. The server pushes new messages to the client as they happen. This is an alternative to the client polling the server for new messages. In this article I’ll show how to implement the messaging system shown in the diagram below. This uses … Read more

Windows Authentication is missing in IIS

Problem When you go to configure authentication in IIS Manager, you notice that Windows Authentication is missing from the list of available authentication methods. You have to enable IIS Windows Authentication using the Windows Features tool (or in Server Roles if you’re using Windows Server). Solution The precise instructions for enabling IIS Windows Authentication vary … Read more